Download A Theory of Philosophical Fallacies by Leonard Nelson (auth.) PDF
By Leonard Nelson (auth.)
Presented as a Vorlesung within the German philosophical culture, this ebook provides the main specified account of Nelson’s approach to argument research, celebrated through many luminaries akin to Karl Popper. It was once written in 1921 against the relativistic, subjectivistic and nihilistic developments of Nelson’s time. The ebook comprises an exposition of a style that could be a extra improvement of Kant’s transcendental dialectics, by way of an program to the severe research of arguments via many recognized thinkers, together with Bentham, Mill, Poincaré, Leibniz, Hegel, Einstein, Bergson, Rickert, Simmel, Brentano, Stammler, Jellinek, Dingler, and Meinong. The e-book provides a normal idea of philosophical argumentation as noticeable from the perspective of the common fallacies dedicated via anyone arguing philosophically, no matter if specialist philosophers or philosophical laypeople. even supposing the character of philosophy and philosophical argumentation is likely one of the such a lot recurrent gadgets of mirrored image for philosophers, this publication represents the 1st try out at a common thought of philosophical fallacy. in accordance with Nelson, it really is within the form of fake dilemmas that blunders in reasoning consistently emerge, and fake dilemmas are consistently the results of an identical mechanism--the unwitting substitute of 1 notion for another.
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As a matter of fact, an impartial analysis will show that he had thereby completely destroyed this principle. He did not notice that the consistency of the system was thereby entirely shattered, for the height of the pleasure that is in question here presupposes a criterion utterly outside of all pleasure. How could we otherwise assess the different kinds of pleasure according to whether they are higher or lower? A pleasure according to this new conception is good when it is directed towards something good; the criterion of the good therefore lies outside of pleasure and is independent of all pleasure.
At that point the phrase ‘sleight of hand’ becomes too imprecise a translation and it will be replaced by ‘swapping of concepts’ or ‘concept-swapping’ as the core of the philosophical fallacies Nelson is discussing. Lecture II 31 conclusively in favour of those judgments that are initially only felt, and for this argumentation we need dialectics. If we are not able to establish a dialectically sound argumentation, then dialectics in this case also leads to a falsiﬁcation of our original judgment.
To say that pure logical thinking ‘is mediating’ means that the content of truth cannot be generated by the pure form of logical inference, albeit logical inference can indeed help establish what follows from this content as taken from somewhere else. Logical reasoning is in and of itself empty in the sense that it cannot create its own epistemic content. The insight that rational knowledge depends on something else is not so old. The error I have described did not only entirely pervade the medieval philosophy of the Schoolmen, but also the philosophical school which under the name of rationalism dominated the modern era up to the end of the eighteenth century.