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ARNAULD, Antoine (1612-1694), French philosopher, logician, theo­ logian and professor at the Sorb­ onne, from which he was expelled for propagating Jansenism in the campaign against the Jesuits. He was an advocate of the rationalism expounded by Descartes. In his "La logique ... the influence of Pas­ cal, Arnauld defined logic as the art of correctly using reason in the natural sciences and mathematics. He promoted the liberation of phil� osophy from scholastic modes of thought. ARNOLD OF BRESCIA (died 1155), one of the leaders of the anti­ feudal and anti-Roman Catholic democratic movement in Italy, rep­ resentative of the burgher heresy and a pupil of Pie"e Abelard.

A procession bearing a sheaf in the barn etc. The popularity of festivals associated with the Mother of God, including this one, can be explained by the fact that she was widely venerated as the "interceder for the people". ASSUR or ASHURA, the supreme god of the Assyrian pantheon, pa­ tron of the Assyrian kings, to whom features of many deities were at­ tributed. He wields human destinies, is �he heavenly judge, the god of war and god of wisdom. He was repre­ sented in the form of a winged solar disc, from which protrudes the torso of a warrior shooting with a bow and arrow.

As a result of Russia's socio-economic backwardness, the revolutionary democrats were un­ able to formulate laws of social de­ velopment, but they realized that such laws must, without fail, exist. This enabled them to go as far as to identify the social roots of religion. Rejecting the theory of deceit, which the thinkers of the French Enlight­ enment had upheld, the Russian atheists turned instead to analysis of men's living conditions and con­ cluded that the reasons for the ap­ pearance and existence of religion were to be found in men's helpless­ ness in face of the forces of Nature, in the poverty and hardships of the oppressed masses.

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